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與生俱來與后天培養(Nature vs. Nurture)

2016-08-19 11:49     供稿單位: 新航道     原創作者:新航道    

出國英語考試有哪些 雅思6.5是什么水平 雅思閱讀評分標準 托福閱讀評分標準 雅思和托福的區別

  Of all the mistakes made in education, the belief in hereditary limits to development is the worst. It gives teachers and parents an opportunity to explain away their errors and relax their efforts, and it conveniently frees them from the responsibility of their influence over the children. Every attempt to avoid responsibility should be opposed. If an educator really attributed the whole development of character and intelligence to heredity, I do not see how he could possibly hope to accomplish anything in his profession. If, on the other hand, he recognizes that his own attitude and exertions influence the children, he cannot escape his responsibility. 在教育方面犯下的所有錯誤中,最嚴重的莫過于相信遺傳會限制發展,因為它會給教師和家長提供一個開脫錯誤、放松要求的機會,便于他們推脫教育孩子的責任。任何逃避責任的做法都應該遭到反對。假如教育者真的把性格和智力的發展都歸因于遺傳,我看不出他如何能指望在自己的職業生涯中取得任何成就。從另一方面來看,如果他承認自己的態度和努力會對孩子產生影響,他就不可能逃避責任。

  I am not referring here to physical heredity. The inheritance of physical disabilities is beyond question. The importance of such inherited problems for the development of the mind is only understood, I believe, in Individual Psychology. The child is conscious of his physical disability, and he limits his own development in accordance with his judgment of that disability. It is not the disability itself that affects the mind, but the child’s attitude toward his disability and his consequent development. If a child suffers, therefore, from a physical disability, it is especially important for him to understand that he is not necessarily lacking in either intelligence or character. We have seen that the same physical disability may be taken either as a stimulusfor even greater effort and success or as an obstacle that is bound to hinder development. 我這里指的并不是身體遺傳。身體殘疾的遺傳毋庸置疑。我覺得這種遺傳問題對于心理發展的重要性只有在個人心理學里面才會被理解。孩子知道自己的身體有殘疾,于是他會根據自己對這種殘疾的判斷限制自己的發展。影響心理的并非殘疾本身,而是孩子對自身殘疾的態度以及隨后的發展。因此,如果一個孩子身體上的殘疾給他帶來了痛苦,他不一定在智力或性格上低人一等,讓他明白這一點特別重要。我們已經看到,同樣是殘疾,有的人把它看作是奮發圖強的動力,有的人卻把它看成是妨礙發展的阻力。

  Good and bad, like other expressions of character, have meaning only in a social context; they are the result of training in a social environment, among our fellow human beings, and they imply a judgment that a person’s behavior is “conductive to the welfare of others” or “opposed to the welfare of others.” Before a child is born, he has no social environment in this sense. At birth he has the potential to develop in either direction. The path he chooses to follow will depend on the impressions and sensations he receives from his environment and from his own body, and on the way he interprets these impressions and sensations. Above all, it will depend on his education. 和性格的其他表現形式一樣,好與壞只在社會環境里有意義;它們是社會環境培養的結果,是在人群中培養出來的;它們暗含著一種評判,即一個人的行為要么“有利于別人的幸福”,要么“有損于別人的幸福”。孩子在出生之前,沒有這種意義上的社會環境,出生時他有了朝兩個方向發展的可能。他選擇走什么樣的路取決于他從環境和自身獲得的印象和感覺,取決于他如何理解這些印象和感覺,最重要的是,取決于他受的教育。 It is the same with inheriting intellectual ability, although the evidence from this is perhaps less clear. The strongest factor in the development of intellectual ability is interest, and we have seen how interest is blocked, not through heredity, but through discouragement and the fear of defeat. It is doubtlessly true that the actual structure of the brain is to some degree inherited; but the brain is the instrument, not the origin, of the mind, and provided any defect is not too severe for us to overcome with our present knowledge, the brain can be trained to compensate for it. Behind very exceptional degrees of ability we shall find, not an exceptional inheritance, but sustainedinterest and training. 智力的遺傳也是如此,盡管這方面的證據可能不那么明確。智力發展最重要的因素是興趣,而我們已經看到興趣是怎樣被封殺的,不是因為遺傳,而是因為灰心喪氣、害怕失敗。毫無疑問,大腦的實際構成在某種程度上是遺傳的;但大腦是思想的工具,而不是思想的源頭。只要缺陷沒有嚴重到不能用現有的知識來克服,大腦就可以通過訓練加以彌補。在超凡能力的背后,我們發現的并不是超乎尋常的遺傳,而是持久的興趣和訓練。

  Even where we find families that have contributed many gifted members to society in more than one generation, we need not assume that hereditary influence has been at work. We may suppose, rather, that the success of one member of the family acted as a stimulus to the others, and that family traditions and expectations enabled the children to follow their interests and train themselves through exercise and practice. 即使對我們看到的那些人才輩出的家庭,我們也不必認為遺傳的影響發揮了作用。我們倒可以認為,一個家庭成員的成功對其他成員是一種激勵,而家庭的傳統和期望會使孩子順著自己的興趣、通過練習和實踐訓練自己。

  Mozart’s parents were interested in music, but Mozart’s talent was not inherited. His parents wished him to be interested in music and provided him with every encouragement. His whole environment was musical from the earliest age. We generally find this fact of an early start among outstanding people: They played the piano at the age of four, or they wrote stories for the other members of the family when they were still very young. Their interest was long and sustained, and their training was spontaneous and widespread. They did not lose their courage, nor did they hesitate or hang back. 莫扎特的父母酷愛音樂,但莫扎特的才華并非遺傳。他的父母希望他對音樂感興趣,對他的鼓勵可以說是面面俱到。從很小開始,他就浸泡在音樂環境當中。我們通常發現杰出人物起步都很早:他們四歲就彈鋼琴,或者很小的時候就給家里人寫故事。他們的興趣是長久而持續的,他們的訓練是自發而廣泛的。他們沒有喪失勇氣,也沒有猶豫或者退縮。

  No teacher can succeed in removing the limits a child has set to his own development if the teacher believes that these limits are fixed. It may make the teacher’s life easier if he can say to a child, “You have no gift for mathematics”; but it can only discourage the child. I have had some personal experience of this. For several years, I was the mathematical dunce of my class, quite convinced of my lack of talent for mathematics. Fortunately, I found myself one day, much to my astonishment, able to complete a problem that had stumped my teacher. The unexpected success changed my whole attitude toward mathematics. I became one of the best mathematicians in my school. The experience helped me, I think, to see the fallacy of theories of special talents or inborn capacities. 一旦教師相信一個孩子給自己設置的發展極限已成定局,他就無法成功地打破這些極限。如果他能對一個孩子說:“你沒有數學天分,”這可能會使教師的日子好過一些;但這樣做只會挫傷孩子的積極性。我自己就在這方面有過切身體會。在好幾年的時間里,我一直是班上的數學老大難,我堅信自己沒有數學天分。幸運的是,有,我發現自己居然能解開一道把老師都難住的題,這令我大為驚訝。這次意想不到的成功徹底改變了我對數學的態度,我成為了學校的數學尖子之一。我想這次經歷幫我看清了所謂的特殊才能或天生能力其實都是些謬論。



  nurture n. 培育

  hereditary a. 遺傳的

  explain away 為…辯解

  relax one’s effort 放松努力

  heredity n. 遺傳

  exertion n. 努力

  inheritance n. 遺傳

  beyond question 無可爭辯

  inherit v. 繼承

  in accordance with 依照be lacking in 缺少

  stimulus n. 刺激物

  obstacle n. 障礙

  hinder v. 阻礙

  conductive a. 傳導的

  welfare n. 幸福

  sensation n. 感覺

  block v. 阻塞

  provided conj. 假如

  compensate for 彌補

  sustained a. 持久的spontaneous n. 自發的

  hang back 退縮

  set limits to 為…設定界限

  have no gift for 在…方面缺少天賦

  dunce n. 在學習上愚笨或遲鈍的人(尤指學生)

  astonishment n. 驚訝

  stump v. 使為難

  fallacy n. 謬見

  inborn a. 天生的